HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF GLOBALIZATION
The term globalization was apparently first published in a 1962 article in Spectator magazine, but it began to enter everyday English usage after the 1962 publication of Marshall McLuhan’s Gutenberg Galaxy. "Globalism" is an even more recent term and appeared for the first time in the 1986 second edition of the Oxford English Dictionary.
Globalization, as a concept, refers both to the "shrinking" of the world and the increased consciousness of the world as a whole. It is a term used to describe the changes in societies and the world economy that are the result of dramatically increased cross-border trade, investment, and cultural exchange. In specifically economic contexts, globalization is often used in characterizing processes underway in the areas of financial markets, production, and investment. Even more narrowly, the term is used to refer almost exclusively to the effects of trade, particularly trade liberalization or "free trade."
Between 1910 and 1950, a series of political and economic upheavals dramatically reduced the volume and importance of international trade flows. Globalization trends reversed beginning with World War I and continuing until the end of World War II, when the Bretton Woods institutions were created (that is, the International Monetary Fund, or IMF, World Bank, and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, later re-organized into the World Trade Organization, or WTO). In the post-World War II environment, fostered by international economic institutions and rebuilding programs, international trade and investment dramatically expanded.
Globalization/internationalisation has become identified with a number of trends, most of which may have developed since World War II. These include greater international movement of commodities, money, information, and people; and the development of technology, organizations, legal systems, and infrastructures to allow this movement. The actual existence of some of these trends is debated, (http://www.martinfrost.ws/htmlfiles/globalization.html).
Globalization is the result of man’s progressive nature of change. It can be traced far back 16th century, the period when European traders and sailors intensified overseas trade through mercantilism. From 16th century the shape of the global migration was transformed by the Europeans and Americans. The first great wave of the early modern migrations involve the forced movement of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade which shifted about 9-12 million people. By the mid of 19th century this trade linked West Africa with the external world through enslaving Africans.
The migration came to be more pronounced during the Second World War. The Europeans economies in 1950’s and 1960’s drove a epoch of global migration that tuned Europeans interest to overseas nations where they thought to have cheap source of wealth, despite the oil shocks of 1970’s and the closure of many Europeans peripheries.
In 1970’s the wave of migration of enormous flow to oil rich and labour added the new pattern of regional migration within Africa, Latin America, and East Asia. However, from 1990’s migration among society has been intensive due to advancement of science and technology, refugees and disintegration in the developing world. The interconnectedness has been quickly brought by development of the communication technology and space exploration, (Bukagile, G. R, 2008).
DEFINITION OF GLOBALIZATION
Globalization (or globalisation) refers to the worldwide phenomenon of technological, economic, political and cultural exchanges, brought about by modern communication, transportation and legal infrastructure as well as the political choice to consciously open cross-border links in international trade and finance. It is a term used to describe how human beings are becoming more intertwined with each other around the world economically, politically, and culturally. Although these links are not new, they are more pervasive than ever before, (http://www.martinfrost.ws/htmlfiles/globalization.html).
Globalization defined as the increasing process of interdependence and interconnectedness between deferent political, social, and economic components of the world. It is the way in which the world is seen as a global village. Globalization become wide spread because it integrates people across their international boarders, making the world operate as the village and therefore making free movement of goods, capital and information, (Bukagile, G. R, 2008).
Globalization refers to the worldwide integration of government, policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through trade and the exchange of ideas, (Schaefer, R. T, 2004).
Globalization refers to the process of global integration of the economies of nations by allowing the unrestricted flow of goods, services, investments and currencies between countries. Nation states pursued globalization in the hope that this would lead to prosperity. They believed that globalization would bring them agricultural modernization, industrialization, urbanization, and hyper-consumerism resulting in increases of per capita gross domestic product (GDP), (http://www.cadi.ph/globalization.htm).
Generally, Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology and it has positive and negative effects on the environment, on culture, on political systems, on economic development and prosperity, and on human physical well-being in societies around the world.
IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION IN RURAL AND URBAN SETTING
The impact globalization has divided into main two parts such as positive impact and negative impact in developing countries like Tanzania. And these two parts explained in rural setting and Urban setting as follows as follow:-
The following are the positive impact of globalization on Rural setting in Tanzania:-
Emergence and development of health services in rural areas. Before 1990 Tanzania had no policy of health in rural areas. But after that period, health services policies introduced in 1990 and 2003 whereby as the impact of globalization spread in Tanzania. The main objective of health policies in Tanzania is “to improve the health and well-being of all Tanzanians with a focus on those most risk and encourage the health system to be more responsible to the need of people”, Also promote adequate nutrition, and control diseases in rural areas. In order to look the well-being of the rural setting government proposed a policy of building health centre and dispensaries all villages in Tanzania. Due to that policy, now days there is a lote of medical centre under private sectors which provide easily to the rural people, (Msambichaka, Mwamba and Mashindano, 2006).
Development of agriculture activities. Through globalization, influencing the development and improvement of agricultural substitute whereby used to increase production of crops. Globalization through aspect of free trade increases competition on production of crops which resulting to the government of Tanzania to insist Tanzanians farmers to increase production under the policy of “KILIMO KWANZA”, a policy of President Dr. J. M. Kikwete. So, due to existence of “KILIMO KWANZA” people are being encouraged to produce enough so as to compete with other countries all over the world. Therefore, the development of agriculture production through the use of mechanized tools like Tractors, Caterpillars, and modern fertilizers increases crops which lead to improve life of rural people in Tanzania. et al.
Development of information and communication technology. Globalization helping the rural people to communicate with other people in other parts of the world through telephone line such as Vodacom, Airtell, Tigo and Zantel which existed in most rural areas all over the country. Also they use internet to see how other people are producing their crops and which technology being used, also they communicate with others through watching television and radios by using digital system. So, de to the existence of communication among Tanzania increases knowledge on production activities and finding outside markets. Taking Radio Free Africa as, they have program of “ZINDUKA” in Saturday evening which explaining much on how to increase production of crops and livestock keeping in Tanzania. Et al.
Fighting against rural poverty through Rural finance. Due to penetration of globalization ideas in Tanzania, rural people are encouraging to form a small group of people of not more than 400 members and they contributing so as to upgrade the well-being of the group, (Msambichaka, Mwamba, and Mashindano, 2006). The names of groups based on financial is called SACCOS whereby Tanzania Government through “MKUKUTA” policy of reducing poverty under President J. M. Kikwete, allowed to give loans called “MABILIONI YA KIKWETE” those group which has been organized and formed. Thereafter given that loan as a group SACCO’s member advised to request loans from that SACCOS so as to reduce the level of poverty in rural setting of Tanzania, (Speech of President Jakaya M. Kikwete, October, 2010 during election campaigns in Njombe Town).
Advancement of Transport and communication system. Up to the early of 1980’s the level of development of Transport system was poor compared to now days under Globalization period. Most of roads during that time were for seasonally especially during dry season. But after penetration of globalization ideas in Tanzania, now day’s rural areas have been built permanent roads which passed every season. This transport system help rural people to transport they crops from rural areas to industrial areas like Dar es salaam. For example, a road from Bukoba-Mwanza to Dar es salaam has been built and complete in 2011, which help people to transport goods, and their crops easily. Et al.
Through trade liberalization and free markets economy, globalization has stimulated much the utilization of natural resources. These are many companies which are investing in natural resources such as mining companies at Mwadui, Geita, Nzega and Kahama gold mining. Presence of these foregn companies enables Tanzania to tilize resources for the development of her people including rural areas.
The following are the negative impact of Globalization in Rural setting:-
Distraction of culture. Globalization through the use of internet, watching television movies and various film from Western countries including United States of America, people living in rural areas decide to cope the life style of western people which resulting to the distraction of Tanzanians rural culture. For example, for now day’s people have no time to seat with their grandparents so as to learn how when they are young people fighting for life and how they speeded they culture previous period, that’s why it is a normal issue for a young person to stay without greeting those aged people. This is quit difference with rural culture which existed previous time whereby people lived as organ, (Bukagile, G. R, 2008).
The rise of individualism in rural areas and distraction of Extended family. Due to existence of globalization in Tanzania, now days people have no unite, peace and harmony as existed previous in rural areas in Tanzania. This is because of coping western living style and implementing to their society especially rural setting. People live as individual, and the problem of an individual being solved by him/ her within nuclear family. This situation influencing the distraction of extended family where people lived as single family and welcoming Nuclear family which characterizing by high level of individualism. Et al.
Increase of corruption in rural. Globalization goes hand in hand with free trade whereby people are allowed to trade in any area. Leaders who are the controller of rural development program they take it as advantages whereby they involve on corruption so as to defend the interest of individual but not whole society. People are committing on corruption because there is no laws which abide them to involve on corruption and trading through free trade. This is quit difference during “Arusha Declaration” whereby leaders had not allowed involving on trading. The impact of it is failure of various program including “KILIMO KWANZA” and “MKUKUTA” in Tanzania especially rural areas. This had been proved by the president of Tanzania Dr. Jakaya Mlisho Kikwete during meeting between him and Journalist in Dar es salaam few days before Tanzania Election of 2010 in Diamond Jubilee. Et al.
High degree of poverty in rural. Globalization goes hand in hand with development of computerization, whereby a lot of work which had been performed by a large number of people in a certain office, now days is performing by machine or computer. The impact of it is unemployment to large number of people living in rural areas and increasing level of poverty. Also in agricultural production tools like tractors replacing a large number of human labour, and also the use of harvest machine reducing the large number of labours who required harvesting, hence large number of people remain unemployed. Also on other side now days rural areas are areas where investors investing and take large poison of land as a result people remain landless which lead them to be poor. Et al
Poor marketing of crops. Even though we are era dominated by globalization through advancement of science and technology, the level of technology applying on production of crops are very low compared to other country like developed country. These lead to low quality and poor production of crops in Tanzania rural setting which impacting to poor market. For example, in Tunduru-Ruvuma region, Mtwara and Lindi up to the present they have not sold their cash crops, this is because of poor quality of production and creation poor marketing system in the World Market. Also crops produced by rural people, price of market are planned by World Market Centre, and not a farmer of rural Tanzania to plan what price they want to sell. Et al
The following are the positive impact of globalization on Urban setting introduced by Bukagile, G. R, (2008):-
High availability of social services. Development of globalization goes hand in hand with the development of urbanization whereby becoming the center of social services. Various traders are investing within a country and abroad investing on social services like education, electricity and health services whereby they built hospital. In education now days most of private and public university build in urban areas where they think have high demand compared to rural areas. This is due to large number of people living in urban setting. These investment influencing high levels of availabilities of social services in urban areas in the cities including Dar es salaam, and Mwanza.
Globalization creating employment. Through investment people got employments opportunities whereby help them to improve standard of living people in urban setting. For example, foregn companies like vodacom, Airtell, Zantel and Tigo hove employed sousand of Tanzanias which help them to improve standard of living people in urban setting.
Introduction of International laws in Tanzania. A contemporary state like Tanzania makes laws which comply with international laws and therefore it abides with them in such a way that it can no longer mistreat her citzen the way it wishes. Issues like human rights, social justices are part of Tanzania constitution, by laws and statutes which effectively started to be used in Tanzania from 1978. and most of courts and advocates are present in urban setting whereby they provide services to the client.
The following are the negative impact of globalization in urban setting:-
Undermined native languages. Now days people living in urban areas has been affected by Kiswahili language whereby they use it as a language of communication all over Tanzania. Vernaculars language like Yao, nyamwezi, Sukuma and Zaramo language are despairing day to day because of tendencies of urban people to speak Kiswahili language and forgetting their local languages. For example, Dar es salaam urban the origin of that area are Zaramo tribe, but it is difcult to listen people’s living their to speak Zaramo language. Also people in urban areas they use English language as a sign to be civilized as outcome of globalization. This is uded most especially educated people,
Increase of migration from rural to urban. Due to poor services available in rural areas, now days people living in rural areas decide to migrate from rural to urban so as to be near with services. Also some people migrate to urban so as to search for employment because in urban areas is the areas where investment is high. The impact of it is high population in urban areas and course unemployment to peoples who living in urban.
Moral erosion. Due to development of globalization through the use of internet, television, watching movies and film people changing the way of behaving. Now days in urban areas moral has been decay and influenced emergence of behavior like drug abuse, homosexual, violence, prostitution, robbery, raping, and other behavior bright by a Globalization as a result high spread of disease.
Unemployment. Globalization influenced people to move from rural to urban areas.
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